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    June 9, 1943: the 1st Congress of the Union of Polish Patriots in Moscow

    The Union of Polish Patriots, known as Związek Patriotów Polskich (ZPP) in Polish, was a political organization established by Polish communists in the Soviet Union. Under the unofficial control and guidance of Joseph Stalin, ZPP played a pivotal role as one of the founding structures of the communist government that came to power in Poland after World War II. The first Cogress of ZPP took place on June 9, 1943, in Moscow.

    The Union of Polish Patriots

    The ZPP emerged as a sizable group comprising approximately 100,000 individuals, primarily consisting of Polish citizens who found themselves in the Soviet Union as war refugees and deportees following the departure of Anders’ Army. Within its ranks, the ZPP was largely influenced by former members of the Communist Party of Poland, notably individuals associated with the Central Bureau Communists of Poland, an organization established subsequent to the ZPP’s formation and active within the Soviet Union as well. Notably, the ZPP encompassed activists representing various political perspectives. During the course of World War II, the Soviet Union housed approximately 1,500 openly declared Polish communists.

    The ZPP was formed during its founding congress in Moscow on 9-10 June 1943, led by President Wanda Wasilewska and a Directorate comprising four members. Notable figures outside the communist circle included Andrzej Witos and Bolesław Drobner. The ZPP denounced the Polish government-in-exile led by Władysław Sikorski, considering their actions detrimental to the “Anglo-Russo-American bloc.” The ZPP’s program emphasized aligning with the Soviet Union, advocating for a democratic and equitable Poland, including a new agrarian system. It prioritized meeting the material, cultural, and educational needs of Poles in the Soviet Union. The ZPP abandoned Polish claims to the disputed eastern borderlands (Kresy) and aimed to establish socialism in Poland, setting the stage for the post-war Polish government’s formation.

    On July 29, 1944, the Union of Polish Patriots, through the Soviet propaganda Radio Moscow, called on the inhabitants of Warsaw to start an uprising against the Germans. It was part of Stalin's cynical game, which was supposed to facilitate the communization of Poland.

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