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    A nurse from the Battalion Zośka, Anna Jakubowska, alias 'Paulinka' passed away

    A nurse from the Battalion Zośka, Anna Jakubowska, alias ‘Paulinka’ passed away aged 95. She was a Polish World War II combatant, community activist, and a participant of the Warsaw Uprising. During World War II, she was an active partisan in the Polish underground resistance movement. First, in the underground PET organization, and later as a nurse and liaison officer in groups later transformed into the Battalion Zośka of the Home Army.

    She took part in the Warsaw Uprising in the  the Battalion Zośka, the Maciek company, 3rd platoon. Battalion Zośka (English: ‘Sophie’) was a Scouting battalion of the Polish resistance movement organisation – Home Army (Polish: ‘Armia Krajowa’ or ‘AK’) during World War II. It mainly consisted of members of the Gray Ranks (Polish: ‘Szare Szeregi’), the underground paramilitary Polish Scouting Association. It was formed in late August 1943. A part of the Radosław Group, the battalion played a major role in the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. It was named after Tadeusz Zawadzki, who used the name as his pseudonym during the AK’s early days. He was killed during a partisan action.

    Also, Anna Jakubowska fought in Wola, the Old Town in Warsaw, and Czerniaków. She received the military decoration The Cross of Valour (Polish: Krzyż Walecznych) for her achievements.

    Her family also fought for Poland and unfortunately, her older sister Maria, alias ‘Maryna’ died during the uprising. 

    After the war, she began studying psychology at the University of Warsaw. In 1949, she was arrested for her participation in the AK and sentenced in the so-called ‘toilet trial’ for 8 years in prison. This kind of trial was a typical lawsuit of the Stalin’s period in Poland. The name comes from the characteristic venue of interrogation. Instead of court room, detainees were kept in prison cell. The judge, jurors and possibly other people were seated in chairs or bunks. In this situation, therefore, the toilet seat was the only place where the prisoners could sit. ‘Toilet trials’ were conducted in violation of the principles of a fair trial: incl. no defense attorneys, trial outside the courtroom. Usually the verdict was known before the trial. In this way, death sentences were often passed for members of the underground movement. In fact, these were court murders.

    She left the Stalin’s prison after 5 years. In the 1980s, Anna Jakubowska was an active participant of the Solidarity movement. She also initiated the Home Army Film Foundation  which produced over 20 films about the activities of the AK. She was a member of the Chapter of the Order of Polonia Restituta. The Order of Polonia Restituta (Polish: Order Odrodzenia Polski, English: Order of the Rebirth of Poland) is a Polish state order established 4 February 1921. It is conferred on both military and civilians as well as on foreigners for outstanding achievements in the fields of education, science, sport, culture, art, economics, national defense, social work, civil service, or for furthering good relations between countries.


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