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    Poland’s Population Decline: Birth Rates Hit Historic Low

    Poland’s population declined to 37.6 million by the end of 2023, marking a decrease of nearly 130,000 compared to 2022, according to a report by the Central Statistical Office. The country recorded over 272,000 live births, the lowest figure since World War II.

    Population Trends
    Since 2012, Poland’s population has been decreasing, except for a slight uptick in 2017. The latest figures reveal a persistent downward trend.

    Women make up nearly 52% of Poland’s population, with 107 females for every 100 males.

    Factors Driving Population Change
    The primary driver of population decline is the negative natural increase, with births falling short of deaths by almost 137,000 in 2023. The natural growth rate decreased to -3.6 per 1000 population.

    The low birth rate and high mortality rate significantly influenced the population dynamics, with deaths exceeding the average value for the past 50 years by almost 35,000.

    Births and Marriages
    Poland witnessed the lowest number of live births since the post-war period, with over 33,000 fewer births recorded compared to 2022. Additionally, the number of marriages dropped by nearly 10,000.

    Divorce rates are nearly three times higher in cities than in rural areas. Urban centers saw almost 41,000 divorces in 2023.

    Migration Trends
    Rural areas experienced a positive migration balance, gaining over 46,800 residents. Most migrants moved within their own voivodeship, with only a quarter changing voivodeships.

    Poland saw a net gain of 6,800 permanent residents due to immigration exceeding emigration. The Mazowieckie voivodeship recorded the highest migration surplus.

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